Precision Measurement

Phase Modulation Noise Reducer
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Phase Modulation Noise Reducer

The phase modulation (PM) noise reducer is a novel scheme for lowering the PM noise of an oscillator. Low PM noise, or phase instability, is among the most important metrics for oscillators used in modern civilian and military applications. One can sense and correct an oscillator’s PM noise by...
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PHOTONIC ARTICLE, PROCESS FOR MAKING AND USING SAME

An article to determine a sample condition includes a substrate; a reference optical cavity disposed on a substrate and comprising a reference cavity, the reference optical cavity being configured to support a reference optical resonsance and to maintain an axial length of the reference cavity; and...
PHOTONIC CALORIMETER
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PHOTONIC CALORIMETER

Radiation-induced materials modification is ubiquitous. These applications rely on dosimetry to reliably deliver the desired amount of radiation to the right place. Currently the dosimetry standard is based on calorimetry of a large water phantom irradiated exclusively by Co-60 gamma rays. The...
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PHOTONIC PROBE FOR AFM

A photonic probe for atomic force microscopy includes: a cantilever including: a tip; a wing in mechanical communication with the tip; an extension interposed between the tip and the wing to synchronously communicate motion of the tip with the wing; an optical resonator disposed proximate to the...
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PLASMONIC ENHANCEMENT OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Various plasmonic structures in the form of electrochromic optical switches are described which exhibit relatively high optical switching contrast. The switches generally include a collection of nanoslits formed in a thin electrically conductive film. An electrochromic material is disposed on the...
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PLASMONIC NANOMECHANICAL SUBDIFFRACTION MOTION SENSOR

Two parallel gold surfaces are separated by a thin gap filled with a compliant dielectric, air or vacuum. The lateral extent (less than about 500nm) and the shape of the gap, form a plasmonic resonator with frequency sensitive to the gap change resulting from mechanical deformation. This nanoscale...
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POLYMERIZABLE BIOMEDICAL COMPOSITION

A polymerizable biomedical composition includes a quaternary ammonium group bonded at its quaternary sites to respective groups R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, and R.sub.4. R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each include a vinyl moiety such that the composition is at least bi-functional with respect to polymerization.
PORTABLE DYNAMIC FORCE PRIMARY STANDARD
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PORTABLE DYNAMIC FORCE PRIMARY STANDARD

A longstanding and thorny problem in force metrology is that of accurately measuring rapidly changing forces. A key part of the problem is that the dynamic response of force sensors changes depending on the system in which the sensor is used, meaning that an external calibration of the sensor is...

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