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Penicillin Enhancement by Modified Tunicamycins

Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)

The penicillins are the most commonly used antibiotics, with >60% utilized in agriculture, but resistance to penicillin is now widespread. The efficacy of penicillins are significantly improved by combining with modified tunicamycins, which are not toxic to eukaryotes. Modified tunicamycins (TunR1 and TunR2) enhance the penicillin efficacy by 32-64 fold, revitalizing penicillin’s usage against resistant Gram-positive bacteria.


  • Potent enhancement of medically-important penicillins
  • Modifications drastically reduce the toxicity
  • The combination of penicillin and modified tunicamycin are more efficacious than either penicillin or modified tunicamycin alone


  • TunRl and TunR2 are potent penicillin enhancers with new uses in antibiotic formulations for medicine and agriculture

ARS Docket no. 120.16. Please contact Renee Wagner: [email protected]