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We have invented an electrodeposition process that fills features from the bottom up, permitting void-free, seam-free nickel filling of tall and narrow ("hight aspect ratio" features such as pinholes in meetal tubes in steam biilers.  the process uses a deposition rate suppressing additive ("suppressor") that yields "critical behavior" such that active deposition occurs only where the suppressor concentration is below a critical concentration, the critical concentration increasing at more negative values of the applied potential.  Thus, for appropriately selected deposition potential, naturally occurring decrease of suppressor concentration down tall features yields deposition only in the bottom regiono the future where the suppressor concentration is below the critical value.  By6 systematically changing the deposition potential from more posititve values to more negative values, the location of the transition from active deposition to passivated deposition is progressively moved up the feature.  For appropriate initial potentional and potential history, the feature can be filled entirely, without void or seam formation.
Moffat, Thomas P.

Josell, Daniel

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